Pope Alexander III (1100/05–1181)
Third Lateran Council. Attended by three hundred
bishops, it gave the college of cardinals the exclusive
right to elect the pope (by a two-thirds majority) and
enacted measures against the Waldensians and Albigensians.
1409 The college of cardinals convoked
of Pisa to end the Great Schism, which had divided
Western Christendom in 1378 by the election of rival popes.
Desiderius Erasmus (1466/69–1536)
sent a copy of Martin Luther’s
Ninety-five Theses to
Thomas More (1478–1535), the
Lord Chancellor of England during Henry VIII’s
schism with Rome.
1545 The Council
of Trent was called by
(1468–1549) after lecturing
Emperor Charles V (1500–1558)
for meddling in affairs of the church.
Kaspar Friedrich Nachtenhöfer,
hymnist, was born at Halle (d. 1685).
Johann Jakob Wettstein, New Testament scholar and
Arminian, was born in Basel (d. 23 March 1754).
(1687–1758) published the first
issue of the weekly The Christian History, the
first religious journal published in America, in Boston
during the midst of the Great Awakening.
Christoph E. F. Weyse, hymnist, was born in Atona,
Denmark (d. 8 October 1842, Copenhagen, Denmark).
Augustine Arne, English sacred composer, died (b. 12
Henry Ballantine (Ballentine), missionary to India who
translated the Bible into Marathi, was born near Albany, New
York (d. 9 November 1865).
1868 Frederick C. Randt, theological
professor and LCMS vice-president, was born in New York City
(d. 20 December 1937, Ironwood, Michigan). He attended
Concordia College (Fort Wayne, Indiana) and Concordia
Seminary (Saint Louis), graduating from the latter in 1889.
He served several parishes in Wisconsin and Minnesota. He
was an instructor for several years at the Wittenberg
(Wisconsin) Academy and from 1915 to 1929 he served the
Minnesota District in various offices. He was elected a
vice-president of the Missouri Synod in 1929, holding that
office until his death.
Graham Wilmot Brooke, African missionary, died in Lokoja,
Africa (b. 1865).
1899 Alcoholic-turned-evangelist Samuel
(1847–1906) began a crusade in
Toledo, Ohio, where the mayor was also named Sam Jones.
Franz Michael Zahn, missiologist, died (b. 1833).
Friedrich W. Blass (b. 22 January 1843), German
philologist and grammarian, died.
Ivar Daniel Ylvisaker, president of the North Dakota
District of the Norwegian Lutheran Church in America, died
(b. 26 May 1868).
(von) Zahn, German theologian at Erlangen, died (b. 10
October 1838, Moers, near Duisburg, Germany). [German
Richard Theodore Kretzschmar, Western District
president, died (b. 17 May 1868).
1984 The U.S. Supreme Court in
Lynch v. Donnelly ruled that a city may use a manger
scene as part of an official Christmas display without
violating the separation of government and organized
religion, as set down in the Constitution.