Martin I, pope from 649 to 655, died in banishment. He
was the last pope venerated as a martyr.
1059 At a Lateran synod Pope
Nicholas II (d. 1061) issued the decree establishing the
election of the Pope by cardinal bishops only.
Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople.
Seventh Crusade was defeated in Egypt, and
Louis IX of France (1214–1270)
1256 The Grand Union of the
Augustinian order was formed when
Pope Alexander IV (1199–1261)
issued a papal bull, Licet ecclesiae catholicae.
Peter Faber, French theologian and a cofounder of the
Society of Jesus, was born (d. 1 August 1546).
Thomas More (1478–1535), Lord
Chancellor of England, refused to take the oath to the
English succession. One year later Henry VIII indicted him
for treason and had him beheaded.
Guy Fawkes, a member of a group of Roman Catholic
revolutionaries from England who planned to carry out the
Gunpowder Plot, was born (d. 31 January 1606).
1598 Henry IV of France issued the Edict of
Nantes, which granted toleration to his Protestant
subjects. Extensive political rights were given to the
Huguenots (a Protestant group to which Henry once belonged).
The Huguenots retained the right to exercise their religion
until the edict was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685.
1742 The first production of The
George Frideric Handel (1685–1759)
took place in Dublin, Ireland, at the Fishamble Street
Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen Nuremberg (FAU),
founded in 1742, was moved to Erlangen.
Richard Armstrong, Presbyterian missionary to Hawaii and
government worker, was born in McEwensville, Pennsylvania
(d. 23 September 1860).
B. (Joseph Barber) Lightfoot, English churchman and
textual critic, was born (d. 21 December 1889).
1829 In the
Emancipation Act the English Parliament granted freedom
of religion to Roman Catholics. Within three weeks the first
Catholic was elected to Parliament.
1836 A. J. (Adoniram
Judson) Gordon, American Baptist clergyman, educator and
writer, was born in New Hampton, New Hampshire (d. 2
1846 The constitution of the
Eielsen Synod (Lutheran) was adopted.
Loyola College in Baltimore was chartered under Roman
1904 Founded on this date in Watertown,
Lutheran Homes and Services, Inc. is the oldest Lutheran
agency serving individuals with developmental disabilities
in the United States.
1908 The New England Conference of the
Methodist Episcopal Church voted to remove its ban on
dancing, card-playing and theater-going.
Johann F. G. Harders, Lutheran missionary to the Apaches
in Arizona and an author, died (b. 18 December 1863, Kiel,
Martin Louis Ernest Luecke, president of Concordia
College (Fort Wayne, Indiana) died (b. 22 June 1859,
Sheboygan County, Wisconsin).
Ernest A. Kilbourne (b. 1865), American missionary to
the Orient, died. In 1902 he went to Japan with Charles and
Lettie Cowman, where they organized the Oriental Missionary
Society in 1907.
1953 A Missouri Synod theological training
program was begun in Tokyo, Japan.
John Paul II (1920–2005)
visited a Jewish synagogue in Rome, marking the first such
visit by a pope in recorded history.