Second Council of the Lateran, led by Pope Innocent II
and attended by a thousand church leaders, opened in Rome.
The main topics of discussion were reforming the church in
the wake of the East-West schism (1054) and preserving the
temporal possessions of the clergy.
1233 (some say 1232) Pope
Gregory IX (ca. 1143–1241)
appointed full-time papal inquisitors and gave the Dominican
order authority to carry out the Inquisition.
University of Rome La Sapienza was instituted by
Pope Boniface VIII (ca. 1235–1303).
1441 At the
Council of Florence (Basel) Pope Eugenius IV issued the
Etsi non dubitemus,
declaring the pope to be superior to church councils.
Johannes Agricola, Saxon theologian and reformer, was
born (d. 22 September 1566).
Matthaeus A. Loewenstern, hymnist, was born in Neustadt,
Silesia (d. 11 April 1648, Breslau).
1657 Freedom of religion was granted to the Jews
New Amsterdam (later New York City).
Brainerd, missionary to the Algonquin Indians, was born
in Haddam, Connecticut (d. 9 October 1747).
Erastus Johnson, American hymn writer, was born in
Lincoln, Maine (d. 16 June 1909, Waltham, Massachusetts).
1853 Fugitive slave Harriet
Tubman (ca. 1820–1913), who
had escaped from the eastern shore of Maryland four years
earlier, made a return trip to the South to rescue other
slaves. By the time slavery was abolished, she had made
nineteen such trips, liberating at least three hundred
fellow African Americans.
1855 Henry Lipowsky, a former lieutenant
in the Austrian Army, opened the first Bohemian-American
church in the U.S., Saint John
Nepomuk Church of Saint Louis, Missouri.
1879 The first African Americans (7) were
confirmed in New Orleans as part of the mission effort of
the Lutheran Synodical Conference.
Pope Leo XIII (1810–1903)
published the encyclical,
Humanum Genus, which denounced Freemasonry.
1899 The great
Metropolitan Tabernacle in London, where Thomas Spurgeon
(son of Charles Haddon Spurgeon) served as pastor from 1894
to 1908, burned to the ground.
Henry W. Buck, Lutheran lay leader, Lutheran Laymen's
League executive and member of the Missouri Synod Board of
Directors, died (b. 28 February 1906).
Spanish Evangelical Lutheran Church received legal
recognition by the Spanish government.