(c. 972–999) became the first German
Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga was baptized by Portuguese
missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of
Fifth Lateran Council, the last attempt at papal reform
before the Lutheran Reformation, opened in Rome.
1515 The papal encyclical Inter
Sollicitudines was published by Pope Leo X
(1475–1521). It stated that all
writings were to be examined by the Catholic church prior to
Nikolaus Hermann, hymnist and composer, died in
Joachimsthal, Bohemia (b. 1500).
Pedro Páez, Spanish Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia and
the first European to see and describe the source of the
Blue Nile, died (b. 25 May 1564).
1675 A Massachusetts law went into effect
requiring church doors to be locked during services. The law
was enacted because too many people were leaving before the
sermons and the long service were over.
1721 Hans Poulsen
(1686–1758), Lutheran Apostle of
Greenland, set sail from Denmark with a party numbering
1738 English preacher George
Whitefield (1714–1770), one of
the most famous religious figures of the 1700s, arrived in
America for his first of seven visits.
Irving (1792–1834), later the
founder of "The Holy Apostolic Church" or "Irvingites," was
deemed unfit to retain the pastorate of Regent Square Church
(Presbyterian) due to Pentecostalism and his view regarding
the human nature of Christ.
1850 Sixteen-year-old Charles
H. Spurgeon (1834–1892) made
his public profession of faith in Jesus Christ in the
Artillery Street Primitive Methodist Chapel in Colchester,
1856 Dwight L.
Moody (1837–1899) was taken
into church membership. Immediately after his conversion, he
began to teach Sunday school and evangelize others.
1861 The Confederate Congress approved a
bill installing chaplains in Confederate armies. Chaplains
had not been common in the American military, but they
became a permanent fixture during and after the Civil War.
Between 100,000 and 200,000 Union soldiers and approximately
150,000 Confederate troops were converted during wartime
Henry W. Horst, Missouri Synod lay leader and member of
the synod's Board of Directors, was born in Rendsburg,
Germany (d. 26 August 1949).
William Whiting (b. 1 November 1825), English poet and
music instructor, died.
Friedrich August Crämer (or
August Friedrich) died (b. 26 May 1812). He came to America
under Wilhelm Löhe's influence
after serving as a tutor in England. He founded Frankenmuth,
Michigan, and served as pastor there. Later he was president
of the Missouri Synod's practical seminary at Fort Wayne,
Indiana; Saint Louis; and Springfield, Illinois.
Cornelius Van Til, Christian Reformed theological
educator, was born in the Netherlands (d. 17 April 1987).
Johannes Quasten, historian of the
early church, was born at Homberg, Germany (d. 10 March
1987). In 1938 he began teaching ancient church history at
the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. He
authored the definitive series on the theology and spokesmen
of the early church:
Georg Sverdrup, president of the Norwegian Lutheran Free
Church, died (b. 16 December 1848, Balestrand, near Bergen,
1963 The Japan Evangelical Lutheran Church
and the Tokai Evangelical Lutheran Church united to form a
Japan Evangelical Lutheran Church.
1983 American Catholic bishops issued a
pastoral letter calling for no nuclear weapons. The National
Conference of Catholic Bishops voted 238 to 9 to approve
The Challenge of Peace: God's Promise and Our Response.