Innocent III (ca. 1161–1216)
issued a bull asking the Bishop of Paris to help subjugate
the abbey of Jouarre, where women not only had autonomy but
also oversaw the monks of Rebais.
Metropolitan (Patriarch) Cyprian (ca. 1336–1406)
was received with rejoicing in Moscow.
1430 French heroine Joan of Arc
(ca. 1412–1431) was captured at
Rheims by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.
1498 Italian reformer
Girolamo Savonarola (b. 21 September 1452, Ferrara), an
aggressive preacher against the corruption of northern
Italy's church and society, was hanged for heresy in
Philipp Melanchthon (1497–1560)
helped change a catholic school into an evangelical one in Nürnberg
at Lazarus Spengler's request.
archbishop of Canterbury, declared King Henry VIII's
marriage to Catherine of Aragon null and void, a key moment
in the English Reformation.
Philip Neri (1515–1595) was
ordained. He founded the Oratorian order.
Joachim Mörlin, Luther's
chaplain and bishop of Samland, died (b. 6 April 1514,
Wittenberg, Germany). [German
1633 Though Huguenots (French Protestants)
had tried to colonize “New France”
(Canada) for three decades, France declared that only Roman
Catholics were allowed to settle there permanently.
Gotthilf Henry Ernst Muhlenberg, Lutheran pastor and
botanist, died (b. 17 November 1753, Trappe, Pennsylvania,
the son of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg).
C. D. Wyneken’s daughter Louise was born.
Gunkel, German Protestant Bible scholar, was born in
Springe, Hanover (d. 11 March 1932). [German
XIII (1810–1903) declared the
Kulturkampf (cultural struggle) between the Roman
Catholic Church and the German Reich under Otto von Bismarck
to be over. [German
Ludvig Mathias Lindeman, composer, died in Christiana, Norway
(b. 28 November 1812, Trondheim, Norway).
Susanne Edgar, national Y.W.C.A. leader, was born at
Sundridge, Ontario (d. 17 September 1973, Toronto).
1891 The Chapel Car idea was
conceived. Boston W. Smith came up with the idea of bringing
specially outfitted rail cars, ten feet wide and sixty feet
long, into unchurched "Wild West" communities where they
could serve as churches until something more permanent was
established and then move on. A dozen of these cars were set
on rail sidings. They did more to tame the American West
than all the gunmen that dominate Hollywood films.
Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen, missionary to Sumatra, died (b.
6 February 1834). [German
Wilbur Nelson, Christian radio host, was born in Denver,
Colorado (d. 22 August 2003).
Elmer Frederick Krauss, president of the Chicago
Lutheran Theological Seminary, died (b. 7 September 1862,
Kraussdale, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania).
1953 The Eket, Nigeria, hospital was
1955 The General Assembly of the
Presbyterian Church in the United States announced it would
permit the ordination of women.
Henry Hampton Halley died in Chicago, Illinois (b. 10 April
1874). He was the creator of Halley's Bible Handbook.
1983 Paul William Streufert, third
vice-president of the Missouri Synod from 1965 to 1972, died
(b. 14 April 1903). A graduate of Concordia College
(Milwaukee) and Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis) in 1927,
Streufert served congregations in Missouri, Louisiana and
Ohio. During his retirement, he served vacancies and
preaching assignments in Illinois. He was president of the
Southern District for three years and served on many boards,
including the synod's Board for Parish Education and the
Board of Control at Concordia Theological Seminary