988 Rus’ Grand Prince
(ca. 958–1015) ordered his people to
be baptized into the Orthodox Christian faith. He personally
oversaw the baptism of the majority of the population of
Kiev, the capital of his realm.
(the Lionhearted, 1157–1199) set
sail for Muslim-controlled Acre in the Third Crusade. After
helping Philip II of France to capture the city, Richard
took Jaffa and negotiated Christian access to Jerusalem,
then in the hands of Muslims.
1305 Bernard de Goth (1264–1314),
born in Villandraut, France, was named Pope
Clement V on this date. He moved the seat of papal power
to Avignon, France, and was there dominated by French King
Philip V. The conclave to elect a pope had been deadlocked
for over a year. Clement's highest achievement was the
completion of the ecclesiastical laws, a task begun over a
1414 Bohemian reformer
(ca. 1369–1415) appeared before
the Council of Constance. Instead of allowing him to state
his beliefs, the council only permitted him to answer
charges of heresy. Hus was condemned and burned the
1493 Justus Jonas,
German Lutheran lawyer, theologian, reformer and Luther's
co-worker, was born (d. 9 October 1555).
and Hoorn were beheaded at Brussels by the Spanish
overlords of the Netherlands, rousing the country to a fury
of resistance and convincing William of Orange to become a
Gibbons, composer, died at Canterbury (bapt. 25 December
1661 English mathematician and physicist
(1643–1727) was admitted as a
student to Cambridge's Trinity College, but the “greatest
scientific genius the world has ever known” actually spent
less of his life studying science than theology, writing 1.3
million words on biblical subjects.
F. Lwoff (also spelled Lvov), Russian soldier and church
musician, was born in Reval, Estonia (d. 28 December 1870).
While serving at the Imperial Chapel (1837–1867),
he edited a well-received collection of church music based
on the Greek Orthodox Church's ecclesiastical seasons of the
Society for Promoting the Gospel among Seamen was
organized in New York.
Francis (Franz) Arnold Hoffmann was born in Herford,
Kreis Minden, Westphalia in the Kingdom of Prussia (d. 23
Maria von Weber (b. 18 November 1786), famed German
operatic composer, died.
Karl Theophil Ewald Rhenius, missionary to India, died
in India (b. 5 November 1790).
1860 The Scandinavian Evangelical Lutheran
Synod was organized by Swedish and Norwegian Lutherans
concerned about unionistic and rationalistic tendencies
among other Scandinavian Lutherans, adopting the name "Augustana
hymn "Onward Christian Soldiers" premiered in Horbury,
Ludvig Olsen Fossum, Mid-East Lutheran missionary, was
born in Wallingford, Iowa (d. 10 October 1920).
Carl Frederick Graebner, Australian Lutheran leader and
president of the Adelaide seminary, died (b. 8 October
W. Gustave Polack, Concordia Seminary (Saint Louis)
professor and a founder of Concordia Historical Institute,
died (b. 7 December 1890).
1959 The secretary of state for
ecclesiastical affairs in Poland wrote a letter to the
Polish episcopate forbidding
Bishop Czeslaw Kaczmarek (1895–1963)
from further exercise of his functions. Kaczmarek was the
most outspoken and aggressive of the anti-Communist Polish
1960 Luther’s Small Catechism was
translated and issued in Taiwanese.
Adolph Theodore Esaias Haentzschel, professor at the
University of Wisconsin and Valparaiso University, died (b.
24 December 1881).